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Roosevelt's Legacy An (Alternative) History of the Progressive Party of America


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(Apologies for the long post, but this is all the current material for Roosevelt's Legacy, and I didn't feel like making 15 some posts for all of this.)

The 1912 Election shook American confidence in their electoral system to the very core. The major candidates were current President William Howard Taft, running as a Republican, Governor of New Jersey Woodrow Wilson, running as a Democrat, and Theodore Roosevelt, the Former President running as the nominee of the newly founded Progressive Party. The election ended in a stalemate, being sent to the house of Representatives. Who did the house choose? Why, in a brilliant show of partisan politics, the house elected William Howard Taft, a man who could not gain even one fourth of the votes cast, to be the next President. This sparked outrage in Democratic, and Progressive circles, and tarnished the reputation of the Republican party. It is this betrayal of himself, and of American democracy, that caused Theodore Roosevelt to continue his project of building a national third party for the Progressive movement.


The 2nd Term of William Howard Taft got off to a foul start. The Republican party's popularity tanked, with headline articles, and salacious editorials of "The Betrayal of 1912" being written in every major paper for weeks after his selection by the house. To make things worse for them four Progressive senators, William Borah, George Norris, Robert La Follette, and Miles Poindexter left the part in 1913 to join the Progressive Party. The Republican party's woes culminated in the midterm elections of 1914, which saw Democrats take both houses of congress, and a plurality of governorships. It also saw the Progressive party gain a number of house seats, governorships, and double their representation in Senate. One of the most notable Senate freshmen from that election, was former President Theodore Roosevelt, having been elected as the Senator from New York in a tight, three way race. Perhaps the most shocking result of the fall, however, was the the result of the Indiana Senate Election. The entrance of Socialist Party leader Eugene V. Debs effectively made the race a four way affair between Debs, the Democrat Shively, the Republican Miller, and the Progressive Beveridge. Indeed the counting, and recounting of the votes continued until the wee hours of the next morning, for no-one could scant believe the result. Avowed Socialist Eugene Victor Debs, by a margin of less than 10,000 votes, had been elected to the United States Senate.

Senate Following the 1914 Midterm Senate Elections:


Major events of William Howard Taft's 2nd Term (March 4 1913-March 4 1917)

In response to unrestricted German U-boat warfare during WW2, Taft calls for a general American embargo on Europe, but when an act in support of this is introduced into the house, it fails.

Taft appoints private lawyer John Davis to the Supreme Court as a compromise pick in 1914. In 1916 he appoints District Court Justice, and personal friend Edward T. Sanford to the supreme court.

In response to border violence by Poncho Villa, and other Mexican revolutionaries, Taft stations more federal troops on the US-Mexico border, but refuses to launch an armed expedition.

Taft vetoes over 90 legislative actions from congress during his second term, most vetoes deal with progressive legislation.

The biggest legislative achievement of Taft's 2nd term, is the reduction of tariffs.

Between 1913, and 1916 seven more states grant women full suffrage, while Arkansas allows women to vote, but only in Presidential elections. In the map below the lighter colored states are the new additions. https://www.yapms.com/app/?m=81lt

The Seventeenth amendment is ratified, making senators directly elected by the people.

Taft continues his doctrine of Dollar Diplomacy

Lack of US intervention in Mexico leads to Conventionist forces gaining an edge in the conflict

Taft is widely unpopular during his second term, and the republican party is zapped of most popular support outside of New England, and are more or less a dead political force in the west, and south. The west becomes a major battle ground region between Democrats, and Progressive, with Progressives dominant on the Pacific Coast. The Steel Belt a three way battle ground that only leans Republican due to the strength of the Democrats, and Progressives preventing one another from coming out on top. The South is Democrat country, but it should be noted that the Progressive party has more or less replaced the Republican party as the 2nd party in that region. It remains to be seen if they can actually win, however. The Socialist party's support is more spread out across the nation, though they can be expected to pull in around 6-10 percent of the vote in a nationwide election.

The Election of 1916


The Democratic Nomination: The Democratic nomination went to current Vice President, as selected by the senate in 1912, John Burke, former governor of North Dakota. Burke, a moderate Progressive, and friend of William Jennings Bryan, was selected in the hopes that he would appeal to voters who would otherwise cast their ballot for Roosevelt, and for the fact he was already one heartbeat away from the Presidency. He selected Alabama senator Joe T. Robinson as his Vice President in order to satisfy Southern Conservatives.


The Republican Nomination: Now almost totally controlled by its conservative elements, the Republican party nominated former Secretary of State, and conservative standard-bearer Elihu Root for President. In an attempt to appeal to western voters, Root selected former Nebraska Senator Elmer J. Burkett.


The Progressive Nomination: The Progressive Party, as expected, unanimously selected Theodore Roosevelt as their presidential nominee. A short lived attempt to nominate William Jennings Bryan was quashed once Roosevelt announced he would make industrialist, and noted pacifist Henry Ford his Vice President. Ford was selected both for his vigorous opposition to American involvement in WW1, and for his promise to help fund the Progressive Party's campaign in 1916.


The Socialist Nomination: The Socialist Party nominated long time standard bearer, and the Party's only sitting senator, Eugene V. Debs for President. Socialist Party members, by way of a mail-order ballot, selected anti-war writer George Kirkpatrick of New York for Vice President.


The General Election:

An odd thing happened in 1916, where the Democratic candidate was more similar to the sitting Republican president, with regards to WW1, than the Republican nominee was. Root called for the United states to enter into the Great War immediately, while Burke advocated complete neutrality. Roosevelt was put in an awkward position, he supported US entrance into WW1, but such an opinion was reviled among his supporters. In response, he decided to moderate his stance, calling for America to build up their army to ensure the European powers wouldn't attack US commerce, rather than an immediate entrance into WW1. The Socialist Party, as expected, derided the war as more Capitalist exploitation of the working class, and called for any declaration of war to be voted on by a national referendum. On the other key issues of the day, the parties were as expected.


The election, as could have been expected, due to the amount of strong third parties, ended in a stalemate. Though the Democratic Party held majorities in both houses of congress, they did not control enough state delegations outright to elect John Burke President. Because of this, a deal was made between the Democratic, and Progressive Parties. The Democrats, and Progressive would work together to make Vice President John Burke President, and in return the Democrats would make Henry Ford Vice President.

In down ballot races the Progressives, Democrats, and Socialists all, at least marginally, improved their representation in the house, and for the Dems, and Progs, in the senate, much to the dismay of the Republican party.

Major Events of John Burke's First Term (1917-1921)

Economic Events:

Continued German unrestricted U-boat warfare detrimental to US Trade.

French government default on their debt following loss is Great War, leading to minor recession in 1919.

Child Labor outlawed in 1918.

Tariffs reduced across the board to stimulate trade in 1917.

Federal Income Tax Amendment passed in 1919.

Foreign Events:

US continues isolationist foreign policy, refusing to intervene in the Great War, or Mexican Civil War.

Russia surrenders to the Central Powers in 1917, and devolves into Civil War between Bolshevik, Socialist, Monarchist, Anarchist, and Nationalist forces. Fighting continues past Winter 1921

France surrenders to Germany in mid-1918, Ottoman Empire capitulates to Great Britain later that year. Armistice between English led Entente, and German led Central Powers signed in the spring of 1919.

Third Republic of France dissolved in Late 1919 following Bonapartist Putsch on Paris. France paralyzed by general strike following this. Erupts into French Civil War in January 1920, between Monarchist forces, and a coalition of Republicans, Syndicalists, and Marxists. Fighting continues past Winter 1921.

Conventionist Forces win Mexican Civil War in early 1920, and begin drafting a new constitution soon afterward. Emiliano Zapata is installed as provisional President.

Domestic Events:

Women given universal suffrage following success of Constitutional Amendment in 1919.

Prohibition Amendment bans booze in 1918.

Republican Party continues its decline, by the start of 1920 its the third largest party by membership, behind Democrats, and surging Progressives. In terms of government representation, it is surpassed in the senate, and house by the Progressives, as the main opposition party following the 1918 midterms.

Progressive Party Founder, and Former President Theodore Roosevelt dies peacefully in his sleep on January 6th, 1919.

Henry Ford announces his retirement from electoral politics in December 1919, citing a want to return to the business world.

Progressive Party, and Socialist Party agree to a fusion ticket in 1920, with Wisconsin Senator Robert La Follette at the top of the ticket, and Indiana Senator Eugene V. Debs at the bottom of the ticket. It remains to be seen if this will be long term thing, or not...

SPA members frustrated with the merger form the Workers Party of America, led by former Cleveland Mayor C. E. Ruthenberg, with a smaller faction joining the Socialist Labor Party.

The 1920 Election:

Progressive Nomination: Robert La Follette, widely recognized as the face of the Progressive Party after the passing of Theodore Roosevelt, engineered the merger of the Socialist Party of America, and the Progressive Party of America, having worked with the Socialists extensively during his political career. Eugene V. Debs was chosen as Vice-President to appeal to Socialists put off by the idea of supporting the Proto-Social Democratic La Follette.


Democratic Nomination: President John Burke of North Dakota was renominated by acclimation. Senator Carter Glass of Virginia was selected as Vice President to appease conservatives, and Southern Democrats.


Republican Nomination: The Republican party is dying, most of its prominent figures have either retired from politics, joined the democrats, or refuse to run for President. This situation provided the opportunity for the President of Columbia University Nicholas Butler to run for President. He selected Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts as his running mate, to appeal to conservatives, and New Englanders. Of the major candidates, he is the only one to vocally oppose prohibition.


Other Nominations:

The Socialist Labor Party, experiencing a minor surge thanks to Socialist dissatisfied with the merger with the Progressives, nominated William Wesley Cox for President, and August Gillhaus for Vice President.


The Workers Party of America, a party made up of more hardline former SPA members, and highly influenced by Leninist Socialism, nominated founding members C. E. Ruthenberg for President, and William Zebulon Foster, for Vice President.


Former Governor of Texas Pa Ferguson ran for President under a new party called the American Party, he is only on the ballot in Texas. He hopes to steal votes from the Democrats, and form a new party for Southern Conservatives.


General Election:


The move to merge the Socialist, and Progressive parties succeeded, giving America her first non-Democrat, non-Republican president in decades. The defections to the Workers, and Socialist Labor Parties had some effect, most prominently in Oregon where they helped hand the state to the Democratic party, but as they both combined for less than a forth of what Debs got in 1916, it remains to be seen if an independent Socialist party can gain the same relevancy as the SPA did. This election also cemented the Republican party's status as a third party, relegated to New England, and some hard Fiscal Conservatives.

Down Ballot Races: The Progressive Party, fueled by its recent merger with the Socialists, took control of the House of Representatives for the first time in its history. In the Senate, they increased their representation, however, the Democrats, with the help of the Republicans maintained a working majority.


Major events of Robert La Follette's first term 1921-1925

Economic Events: Economy begins to recover from the recession caused by U-boat warfare, and the collapse of France, in 1922.

Tariffs restored to previous levels to protect industries.

Progressives able to narrowly bring in Unemployment Insurance in 1923

American Aviation industry ramps up in 1924 when Henry Ford founds the Ford Airplane Company.

USA-CoM trade deal negotiated, and ratified in 1922.

Foreign Events: Commonwealth of Mexico declared in the spring of 1921, Emiliano Zapata elected as the country's first president without serious opposition.

Nationalist forces succeed in Poland, and the Baltics. Nationalist, and Anti-Bolshevik Socialist Fins unite to form the Social Republic of Finland. Ukrainian Nationalists forced to compromise with Makhnovia forces, and Anti-Bolshevik Socialists to form the Free Commonwealth of the Ukrainian People. In the rest of the Russian Empire, fighting continues past 1925, but Republicans, and Anti-Bolshevik Socialists have a slight edge.

French Revolutionaries capture France mainland France in 1922, forcing French royals into exile in the colonies. They Declare the 4th Republic, and begin drafting a constitution, inaugural elections are scheduled for 1924. Léon Jouhaux selected as Premier of the Convention, and de facto head of state.

Labour Party UK wins the 1924 General Election. Sir Oswald Mosley defeats Neville Chamberlain.

Under pressure from his Veep, Robert La Follette begins to pursue a foreign policy of Progressive Intervention, where the US would politically, and economically support Democratic, and non-authoritarian Socialist movements around the world, but would only provide troops upon the request of the recipient state.

Domestic Events:

Robert La Follette upon the suggestion of Civil Rights activists, desegregates the armed forces by executive action in 1922.

Prohibition leads to an uptick in crime.

Progressive narrowly hold the House, and make minor gains in the senate in the 1922 midterms.

La Follete takes a hardline stance on the Klan, focusing federal law enforcement on rooting out the KKK.

Henry Ford condemns Robert La Follette as a Bolshevik, and publicly switches parties to the Democrats in 1922.

Republican Party near non-existent outside of New England. Reduced to a small handful of seats in the house, and the single digits in the Senate.


The Election of 1924


Prog: The La Follette, Debs ticket was renominated by acclimation at the Progressive National Convention.


Dem: Moderate Governor James Cox of Ohio was chosen over Senator Oscar Underwood of Alabama, due to his record as someone who could appeal to Progressive voters. John W. Davis, a Supreme Court Justice from WV appointed by Taft, is selected as VP to appeal to conservatives


Rep: The Republicans choose loyal party man, and philanthropist Herbert Hoover. Governor of Massachusetts Calvin Coolidge is selected for his track record as a promoter of clean government, and his effective, conservative leadership.


Other (All candidates with over .01% of the popular vote):

Prohibition: Endorsed Herbert Hoover for President, but nominated Herman P. Faris for Vice-President.


Socialist Labor: Arnold Peteron/Frank T. Johns


Workers: William E. Foster/Ben Gitlow


American: Pa Ferguson/Gilbert O. Nations


Commonwealth: William J. Wallace/George F. Cotterill


General Election: Robert La Follette, and Eugene Debs were both re-elected, however, it should be noted that this is the first election since Madison in 1812 where a President was re-elected with a smaller margin than in his initial election.





Popular Vote Results:

P: 42.92%

😧 40.46%

R: 15.91%

Pro: 0.15%

W: 0.25%

S: 0.20%

A: 0.10%

😄 0.01%

Down Ballot: The Progressive Party wins the senate, but looses the house. William Borah elected Senate Majority Leader, Finis James Garrett elected Speaker.


Status of the American Economy: The American economy continues its strong post WW1 growth. Unemployment declines, however inflation reaches 4% in 1928, raising some alarms for economists. One of the most contentious economic actions of the period is the multiple attempts by the Progressives to nationalize multiple sectors of the economy, starting with the Shipbuilding sector in 1925. They eventually, partially succeed in 1928, following the passage of the Essential Railroad Nationalization Act, which nationalizes railways 'essential to the American economy, and the national defense'.

Status of the World:

Lenin assassinated in late 1925, assassin's motives will forever remain a mystery due to being shot almost immediately after by Lenin's bodyguards. Bukharin becomes de facto Bolshevik leader. Russian Civil War ends in 1926, with Bolsheviks, Socialists, and Republicans negotiating an end to the fighting, and team up against Monarchist, and Proto-Fascist forces. Russian Republic declared in December of 1926.

George V succumbs to bronchitis in 1925 aged 60. He is succeeded by his son Edward VIII. In 1926 England is gripped by a General Strike orchestrated by the TUC, which leads to the Voluntary Militia for National Renewal, a paramilitary group founded by Oswald Mosely, marching on London on October 4th 1926. Edward VIII suspends parliament, and hands power to Oswald Mosely, and the Fascists in a bloodless coup the following day. Violence between Fascists, and Anti-Fascists culminates in the Defense of Britain Act, which bans left-wing, and far-left parties, and applies heavy pressure to parties like the Conservatives, Liberals, and Labor.

Léon Jouhaux elected first President of the Fourth Republic of France, 70-30 over Marcel Deat. Republicans take plurality in parliament, and Leon Blume is elected Prime Minister as a compromise candidate.

Germans empire conquers the newly independent Poland, and Lithuania in 1928, following the declaration of the German Baltic War in 1926. The Kingdom of Poland, and Lithuania is declared shortly afterwards, and Victoria Louise III becomes Queen of Poland-Lithuania.

Afghanistan declares war on the British Raj, leading to the Anglo-Afghan war in 1927, fighting lasts a year, and results in the Treaty of Delhi, which transformed Afghanistan into a puppet of the British Empire.

Domestic Events:

Progressives hold the Senate, and win the House by a seat in the 1926 midterms.

National Unity is strong, but there are major disagreements about the need for more Social Reforms following the highly progressive two terms of Robert La Follette.

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List of Presidents (so far)







William Howard Taft (1913-1917)/ John Burke (1913-1917)

John Burke (1917-1921)/ Henry Ford (1917-1921)

Robert La Follette (1921-1929)/ Eugene Debs (1921-1929)

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  • 3 weeks later...

The 1928 Election

After eight years of a La Follette government, the American people were ready for a moderate change from the Progressives. They found that change in Governor Alfred E. Smith of New York, the first catholic to win the Presidency. The campaign was dominated by the topics of further nationalization, as well as America's foreign policy. Smith derided Debs as a Socialist radical who would destroy the American way of life, while Debs attack Smith as a front man for New York financiers. In the end, an open Socialist was a bridge too far for Americans in 1928, and Smith was elected with a majority in the Electoral College, and a plurality of the Popular Vote. Three New England states voted for the Republican nominee Calvin Coolidge, who based his campaign on warning about a "coming recession" caused by "Socialistic Progressive policies" though he was derided by most as a doom-saying fool.


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The 1932 Election

The presidency of Al Smith got off to a bright start, with the economy improving for all of 1929, and sort of peace returning to global affairs after years of tumult following German victory in the Great War. This 'Normalcy Period' did not last long however, as on February the 4th, 1930, the New York Stock Exchange crashed, and was followed by the crash of the Berlin Stock Exchange on February the 6th, two events that would later be termed 'Black Tuesday', and 'Black Thursday' by historians. The resulting economic depression led to a crash in support for the incumbent Democrats, and a surge for the Progressives, and even the ailing Republicans, led by the 'Prophet' Calvin Coolidge, who predicted such a crash two years before hand. In the 1930 midterms, the Progressive took both houses of congress, yet what is perhaps more interesting, is that, for the first time since the Taft administration, the Republicans actually gained seats, not just in the house, but in the senate as well. This was the prelude to one of the most bombastic election in American history, wherein the Democrats refuted Al Smith, refusing to renominate him, and instead nominating the Texas Senator John 'Cactus Jack' Garner for president. Even before the fall of 1932, the election promised to be a contentious one. So contentious in fact, that no candidate wound up with a majority. The agrarian focused Senate Maj Leader George W. Norris took the rural west, and split some of the industrial Midwest with the Republican Coolidge, with the Democrats failing to win any states outside the south. The job of picking the President then fell to the House of Representatives, where despite having a majority of seats, the Progressives held a minority of state delegations, thanks to the Democratic stranglehold on the South, and a republican resurgence in New England. It is these factors, which led to what was called by some Progressives the "Second Corrupt Bargain" where George Norris  was denied the presidency by a coalition of Democrats, and Republicans supporting Coolidge, despite Norris winning pluralities in both the Popular, and Electoral votes. For the first time in twenty years, America had herself a Republican President, and at a time of great crisis, the populous of America waited with baited breath to see if Coolidge's conservatism could deliver the country from a recession.


(Electoral Map Of The 1932 Election)

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The Election of 1936

The Term of Calvin Coolidge was memorable, and turbulent. Coolidge's many plans for reregulation, and tax cuts were blocked by a Progressive controlled house, and this led to the continued weakening of the US economy. After the "Second Corrupt Bargain" of 1932, Progressives were furious. They were joined in anger by the general American populace, who were fed up with a political establishment they saw as aloof to the suffering of the masses. This appetite for change was pounced on by the junior senator from Louisiana, Huey Pierce Long, a fiery populist member of the Progressive party. After winning the Progressive nomination on the 3rd ballot over Mayor of NYC Norman Thomas, and Senator of New York Fiorello La Guardia, he selected Quentin Roosevelt, son of Party founder Theodore, and a rising star in the Party's Social Democratic, and Eastern Establishment wings. The Democratic party once again nominated a conservative southerner for President, and even though some commentators praised the Vice-Presidential candidate Thomas Dewey's performance, the ticket lacked enthusiasm, and only appealed to southern conservatives put off by Coolidge's pro-civil rights positions. The Republicans, as expected, renominated the incumbent President Calvin Coolidge, and the incumbent Vice President Robert Taft. Huey Long was able to capitalize on the populist sentiment of the American people, and beat Calvin Coolidge comfortably, by expanding Progressive support to places it had never won before, mostly in the South. What this means for the future of American politics, no one can quite say, but the retirement from politics of Calvin Coolidge has left the Republicans without a standard bearer, and the Democrats must reexamine their strategy now that they no longer have a strangle hold on the south, with the rise of the populist faction of the Progressive Party.


(Map of the 1936 Election)

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The Election of 1940

The first term of Huey Long was a turbulent time. The Great Depression continued to rage on, but Huey was able to work with congress to pass a number of relief, and recovery bills he called his Share The Wealth plan. These bills, while not ending the depression, did make him popular among many Americans.

The Democrats meanwhile, entered the early steps of a party realignment, new leaders like Governors Thomas Dewey, and Harold Stassen of New York, and Minnesota respectively, and Senator of Illinois Adlai Stevenson push for a new kind of Democratic party, one that's unabashedly Liberal, pro-Civil Rights, and caters to the concerns of the urban working class. This faction clashed with the older establishment, that still held true to the beliefs of Conservatism, Segregation, and Jeffersonianism.

An area of policy that was brought to the forefront of public consciousness was that of foreign policy. On October 15th 1939, the British Empire led by Oswald Mosely invaded the Republic of France, the move was preluded by the British annexation of Ireland, and increasingly bellicose rhetoric by the British regime. The Russian Social Republic, an ally of the French, then declared war on the British. Once again, a spider's web of alliances has plunged Europe, and with the creation of the Anglo-Sino Pact in March of 1940, Asia, into a Second Great War. America remained neutral though 1940, but the war, has caused some Americans to question whether the country should remain as isolationist as it has been in the past decades.

When it came time to pick a candidate the Democrats could not settle between the Old Guard candidate Sen. Harry F. Byrd of Virginia and the New Democratic candidate Thomas E. Dewey, in the end settling for the compromise dark horse Cordell Hull, a Senator from Tennessee. To appeal to Liberals, the Hull made Adlai Stevenson his running mate. The Progressive Convention went over well, expect for a protest by some of the party's more Pro-Civil rights delegates, frustrated with Long's lack of action on that front. As expected they renominated the incumbents for another term. The Republicans nominated Former Vice-President Robert Taft for President, and conservative former Governor of Pennsylvania Arthur H. Jones for Vice-President.

Hull, the only candidate in the race who favored American intervention in the Second Great War, received a boost thanks to the fact that stories of the war dominated headlines the entirety of 1940. This, however, was not enough to counter the popularity of Huey Long, who won a second term.


(Election Map Of The 1940 Election)

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5 Major Events In America in Jan 20th 1941 and Jan 20th 1945

America Invaded: June 18, 1942, a date that will live in infamy. For the first time in generations, American soil had been attacked by a foreign power. The British Empire had used Canada as a launching pad for an invasion of America. The invasion focused on taking New England, and the Pacific Northwest quickly using mobile warfare, and air superiority. Thankfully, English plans for invasion were intercepted by American military intelligence agencies in time to allow for America to prepare for a land war on the homeland. Following the declaration of war, Russia, and France offered their support, and America joined the Allied Powers against the forces of the London Pact. The shock of an attack on America caused a rally around the flag effect heightening Progressive support in the 1942 midterms.

Liberal Wing Takes Over The Democratic Party: The 1944 DNC was a sight to see. Surprisingly the Liberal faction of the party was able to force a rule change to allow for a candidate to be nominated with just a simple majority. This amendment weakened the influence of Southern Conservatives on the nominating process, and allowed the Liberal scion Thomas E. Dewey to win the nomination on only the second ballot, over the Old Guardian Richard Russell. It remains to be seen what the full effects of such a change will be, but most commentators are certain this marks a move to the left for the Democratic Party.

Detroit Tigers Become First MLB Team To Integrate: In the 1944 the Detroit Tigers, owned by Walter Briggs Sr. added an unusual player to serve as their primary backstop. He was not unusual for his level of skill, as he had that in excess, rather, he was unusual for his skin color. Catcher Josh Gibson became the first Black American to play for a Major League team. A power hitter of note even during his days in the Negro league, Gibson led the league in home runs with 40, seven more than the runner up, Bill Nicholson of the Chicago Cubs, who had 33. Gibson was essential to the Tigers's championship run in 1944, coming through in key moments to lead his team past the St. Louis Browns in the regular season, and performed well in the World Series against the Stan Musial led St. Louis Cardinals. Despite his best efforts, Gibson, and the Tigers lost the World Series in seven games. Despite this the breaking of the color barrier is being praised by many, and is seen as a step in the right direction for American race relations, with some comparing Briggs to La Follette integrating the US Armed Forces.

End of the KaiserreichEven though they remained neutral in the Second Great War the German empire, and her sphere continued the decline they had been on since the start of the Great Depression. Various Colonial revolutions, and puppet states breaking off culminated in The Spring Revolution of 1943, where supporters of the KPD stormed the German capital, and established the German Socialist Republic. Kaiser Victoria III, and her family was reportedly executed by the revolutionaries as soon as they were captured. This represents the first successful establishment of a Socialist state since the short lived governments following the breakdown of the Russian Empire.

National Republican Party Dissolves: With Isolationist Non-Racist Conservatism becoming less, and less relevant, or popular in recent years, it doesn't come as a shock when the Republican party officially shutters its national office in 1943, after failing to win any federal representation in the midterms the year before. All is not lost for Conservatism however, as some state parties still exist that fight for limited government, as well as the fact that Conservatives, though now playing a reduced role thanks to the dominance of the liberal faction, still hold a lot of sway in the Democratic party, especially in the South. 

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Progressive Party Nomination:

Despite widespread rumors leading up to the PNC of 1944, Huey Long declined to run for reelection, and instead endorsed his Vice President Quentin Roosevelt for President. Roosevelt, son of party founder, and former President Theodore Roosevelt, and a prominent member of the party's Social Democratic wing, enjoyed broad support from just about every corner of the party, as well as the general American public. This did not, however, stop some die hard Longist delegates from trying to stop his nomination, but no serious, organizes candidate emerged for the populists to back. Roosevelt selected Governor of Iowa Henry Wallace as his Vice-President for his ability to appeal to both the Socialist, and Populist wings of the Progressive Party.

Democratic Party Nomination:

The 1944 DNC saw a battle between the two main wings of the Democratic Party, the more liberal New Democrats, vs. the more conservative Old Guard. The New Democrats proved to be the victor, as Liberal standard bearer Gov. Thomas E. Dewey of New York won the nomination on the first ballot over Old Guardian Harry F. Byrd, after a rule change that allowed a nominee to be nominated with only a simply majority of delegates. To ease factional tensions, Dewey selected his opponent from 1940, George Russell as his running mate.

General Election:

Due to the popularity of Long, and the effect of economic recovery, and military success in the Second Great War, it came as no surprise that Roosevelt proved victorious over  Dewey. What was surprising however, was the closeness of the result. Many pollsters had predicted a landslide Roosevelt victory, which did not occur, though it should be noted Roosevelt's margin was very comfortable. Explanatory factors for the closeness of the race could be the death of the Republican party, the fact that Roosevelt didn't appeal to the same bloc of Southern Populist voters that Long did, as well as Dewey's ability to appeal to more Liberal voters who were otherwise solidly Progressives.



Pop Vote Total:

Roosevelt: 50%

Dewey: 46%

Various Other: 4%

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